YHWH: One God Alone, or one god among many gods?
2. One God versus Many Gods
3. God Rebukes False Gods and Idolatry
4. 1 Corinthians 8
5. Psalm 82
[Note: the Bible translation used in the passages in this post is the New American Standard Bible, 1995 Updated Edition. Just like in the King James Version, any time the divine name is listed in Old Testament verses, the word Lᴏʀᴅ (in all caps) is used to replace the divine name, the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, which is the name of God. Many scholars believe the Divine name was most likely pronounced as “Yahweh”.]
I preface this article by stating that the religions of Judaism and Christianity have always been monotheist. This used to be widely accepted among adherents and non-adherents, but many today have questioned the validity of this assertion, for varying motives. Some seek merely to produce new scholarship for sales, prestige, etc., with no ulterior motives to damage the religions they are studying, and some others have more sinister motives, such as placing doubt in the foundations of Christianity to either disparage or destroy it, or to replace it with a religion that they might deem superior. However, the words of Holy Scripture have never described the worship of the ancient Israelites nor of the Christian church to be polytheistic.
All of orthodox Christianity (i.e. traditional, creedal Christianity, not speaking of the Eastern Orthodox church alone) has always considered, at minimum, the 39 books of the Old Testament and 27 books of the New Testament (as Protestant Christians have numbered the books of the Bible since the days of the Reformation) as Holy Scripture and inspired by the One God of creation. The theme of the compiled books of Scripture speak consistently from the beginning of the first creation passage in Genesis 1 (“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth”) until the closing passages in Revelation 22 of the work of God in creating, leading, and redeeming all of existence and God’s chosen people. It consistently speaks of the One God in the Old Testament who created Adam and Eve and placed them in the garden of Eden who were eventually led out of paradise due to disobedience, made and promised covenants with various people and groups such as Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and David, led Israel out of exile in Egypt to the promised land, protected Israel from invaders and delivered their enemies to them in combat, promised a remnant people and a Messiah who would save them, etc. This same God is further revealed in the New Testament in the incarnation of the Son of God, Jesus Christ, in fulfillment of all of the prophecies from the Old Testament, who accomplishes the atonement for God’s people on the cross and is applied by the work of the Holy Spirit. Never does the Christian church deny that there is only One God, yet Scripture revealed further truths about God, that He was One in Being, yet three in persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Bible is a consistent witness of the One God in Three Divine Persons, the Triune God (Triune meaning there is threeness in persons and oneness in being, the tri-unity of God), YHWH. As long as Christianity has existed, it has been firmly anchored in these truths based on the premise that the Bible is God-breathed Scripture (cf 2 Timothy 3:16-17) and considered them to have the highest authority in matters of faith and practice. Since the Bible contains the very words from God, they are truth, they can be trusted, and that is the basis of the Christian religion.
2. One God versus Many Gods
Cited below are several passages that clearly teach the single Being of God, YHWH, from Holy Writ:
Deuteronomy 4:35, 39:
“To you it was shown that you might know that the Lᴏʀᴅ, He is God; there is no other besides Him…Know therefore today, and take it to your heart, that the Lᴏʀᴅ, He is God in heaven above and on the earth below; there is no other.”
“‘You are My witnesses,’ declares the Lᴏʀᴅ, ‘And My servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and believe Me And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, And there will be none after Me…”
Isaiah 44:6, 8:
““Thus says the Lᴏʀᴅ, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the Lᴏʀᴅ of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last, And there is no God besides Me…Is there any God besides Me, Or is there any other Rock? I know of none.’”
“I am the Lᴏʀᴅ, and there is no other; Besides Me there is no God. I will gird you, though you have not known Me; That men may know from the rising to the setting of the sun That there is no one besides Me. I am the Lᴏʀᴅ, and there is no other, The One forming light and creating darkness, Causing well-being and creating calamity; I am the Lᴏʀᴅ who does all these.”
However, many critics and scholars attempt to attack these claims by referring to the pages of Scripture themselves. LDS apologists reference passages in the Bible that refer to deities of other nations and they claim this means that such deities actually exist, thus proving that ancient Judaism actually started out as polytheistic and later evolved into a monotheistic religion. Usually, these scholars will theorize that historic revisionism of their worship occurred in the post-exilic reformation of the religion for one or more reasons: to maintain Judaism’s uniqueness from the other nations, to maintain their religion was kept pure from(and thus superior to) the pagan polytheistic systems that surrounded them, etc. But such scholars will maintain that Judaism began on the pillars of polytheism just like many of the Middle Eastern religions prior to and contemporary to Judaism.
Passages they will typically reference to support this position include (but are not limited to) the following (all references are from the New American Standard Bible, 1995 Updated Edition):
“You shall have no other gods before Me.”
“There is no one like You among the gods, O Lord, Nor are there any works like Yours”
“…against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments – I am the Lᴏʀᴅ.”
“…The Lᴏʀᴅ had also executed judgments on their [Egypt’s] gods.”
“For great is the Lᴏʀᴅ and greatly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods.”
Psalm 82: 1, 6:
“God presides in the divine assembly; He renders judgment among the gods…I have said, “You are gods; you are all sons of the Most High.”
1 Corinthians 8:5:
“For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords,”
These passages, they claim, are evidence of the existence of other gods, that YHWH/Yahweh was the chief among these gods, and that these Gods are not to be worshiped above Israel’s God. For example, these critics may ask, in the case of the First Commandment in Exodus 20:3, what need is there of speaking of “other gods before [YHWH]” if they do not exist at all? In the case of the LDS apologists, they frequently quote such liberal scholarship (I use the term “liberal” not in a political sense, but in the sense that it deviates significantly from orthodox, conservative Christian scholarship in its presuppositions and understanding of Holy Scripture). Their intent is to show that other gods exist to increase the plausibility of their view of eternal progression. This view proposes that God the Father, aka Elohim, was a normal man born on another planet, worshiped another God above him, ascended to Godhood by obedience and faith, and this is the same manner by which faithful LDS will attain unto godhood themselves, and the cycle continues on forever and ever, without a true beginning or end.
3. God Rebukes False Gods and Idolatry
However, many times in Scripture, we see that the inspired author will explicitly state that these other so called “gods” are not actually gods at all, but are false idols made by men. This is excellently exemplified in the book of Second Kings chapter 19 which contains a prayer form the King Hezekiah. In it, the king prays before the Lord God of Israel, YHWH, and exults Him in His might and splendor above all else while also denying the false gods of the other nations as nothing more than the machinations of men:
2 Kings 19:14-19:
Then Hezekiah took the letter from the hand of the messengers and read it, and he went up to the house of the Lᴏʀᴅ and spread it out before the Lᴏʀᴅ. Hezekiah prayed before the Lᴏʀᴅ and said, “O Lᴏʀᴅ, the God of Israel, who are enthroned above the cherubim, You are the God, You alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth. “Incline Your ear, O Lᴏʀᴅ, and hear; open Your eyes, O Lᴏʀᴅ, and see; and listen to the words of Sennacherib, which he has sent to reproach the living God. “Truly, O Lᴏʀᴅ, the kings of Assyria have devastated the nations and their lands and have cast their gods into the fire, for they were not gods but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone. So they have destroyed them. “Now, O Lᴏʀᴅ our God, I pray, deliver us from his hand that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that You alone, O Lᴏʀᴅ, are God.”
The gods of these other nations, if they were worshiped, were not legitimately worshiped. The Lᴏʀᴅ God of Israel has always been the sole creator of the heavens and the earth. He does have heavenly beings below Him who are also of His creation (such as the cherubim mentioned in this passage, i.e. a specific choir of angelic beings). But there is absolutely no being that is uncreated or even compares to Him, and there certainly are no gods that came before Him. Any idols that were ascribed worship that is only deserving unto their Creator were to be destroyed and the idolaters punished. It was never considered acceptable to the God of Israel to include other deities in their worship, and any time Israel descended into idolatry, they were chastened by God.
Isaiah chapters 40-48 are often spoken of as the “trial of the false gods”. The entirety of these chapters cannot be posted here but I highly encourage you to read them. In them, Isaiah (often in the first-person speech of God, as these passages are inspired by God Himself) exults the One God, YHWH, as the supreme being and the creator of everything in the heavens and in the earth, including all humans. No other being even compares to Him, and any worship of any other god or being is ultimately fruitless. If these passages could be summed up in several words, it would have to be, “Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.” (Isaiah 45:22)
Scathing language is employed by the Lᴏʀᴅ of these false gods and of those who worship them, such as the following:
‘Those who fashion a graven image are all of them futile, and their precious things are of no profit; even their own witnesses fail to see or know, so that they will be put to shame. Who has fashioned a god or cast an idol to no profit? Behold, all his companions will be put to shame, for the craftsmen themselves are mere men. Let them all assemble themselves, let them stand up, let them tremble, let them together be put to shame.
“The man shapes iron into a cutting tool and does his work over the coals, fashioning it with hammers and working it with his strong arm. He also gets hungry and his strength fails; he drinks no water and becomes weary. Another shapes wood, he extends a measuring line; he outlines it with red chalk. He works it with planes and outlines it with a compass, and makes it like the form of a man, like the beauty of man, so that it may sit in a house. Surely he cuts cedars for himself, and takes a cypress or an oak and raises it for himself among the trees of the forest. He plants a fir, and the rain makes it grow. Then it becomes something for a man to burn, so he takes one of them and warms himself; he also makes a fire to bake bread. He also makes a god and worships it; he makes it a graven image and falls down before it. Half of it he burns in the fire; over this half he eats meat as he roasts a roast and is satisfied. He also warms himself and says, “Aha! I am warm, I have seen the fire.” But the rest of it he makes into a god, his graven image. He falls down before it and worships; he also prays to it and says, “Deliver me, for you are my god.”
“They do not know, nor do they understand, for He has smeared over their eyes so that they cannot see and their hearts so that they cannot comprehend. No one recalls, nor is there knowledge or understanding to say, “I have burned half of it in the fire and also have baked bread over its coals. I roast meat and eat it. Then I make the rest of it into an abomination, I fall down before a block of wood!” He feeds on ashes; a deceived heart has turned him aside. And he cannot deliver himself, nor say, “Is there not a lie in my right hand?”’
These false gods of these nations are nothing but the creation of man, and God is exposing the folly of their false worship in these passages. How can a man take an item, craft it into a beautiful picture, and bow before it, when he knows from whence the item came? How can this stone, wood, or food be the God who created everything? And why would one bow before this inanimate object which cannot see, hear, understand, or do anything when they can worship the God of Israel?
After decrying the folly of such false worship, God has not given up on His people. He still calls them to faith and repentance in Him, the One True God of their fathers:
“Remember these things, O Jacob,
And Israel, for you are My servant;
I have formed you, you are My servant,
O Israel, you will not be forgotten by Me.
“I have wiped out your transgressions like a thick cloud
And your sins like a heavy mist.
Return to Me, for I have redeemed you.”
“Shout for joy, O heavens, for the Lᴏʀᴅ has done it!
Shout joyfully, you lower parts of the earth;
Break forth into a shout of joy, you mountains,
O forest, and every tree in it;
For the Lᴏʀᴅ has redeemed Jacob
And in Israel He shows forth His glory.
“Thus says the Lᴏʀᴅ, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb,
“I, the Lᴏʀᴅ, am the maker of all things,
Stretching out the heavens by Myself
And spreading out the earth all alone,
“Causing the omens of boasters to fail,
Making fools out of diviners,
Causing wise men to draw back
And turning their knowledge into foolishness,
“Confirming the word of His servant
And performing the purpose of His messengers.
It is I who says of Jerusalem, ‘She shall be inhabited!’
And of the cities of Judah, ‘They shall be built.’
And I will raise up her ruins again.
“It is I who says to the depth of the sea, ‘Be dried up!’
And I will make your rivers dry.
“It is I who says of Cyrus, ‘He is My shepherd!
And he will perform all My desire.’
And he declares of Jerusalem, ‘She will be built,’
And of the temple, ‘Your foundation will be laid.’”
The Bible consistently speaks of one God only creating everything, nothing else being at creation with Him, no other god existing before Him, and that there will never be another god after Him.
So what do we do with the aforementioned passages that critics use to try to show that other gods existed in some kind of primitive Judaic pantheon? The fact that God commands Israel to have “no other Gods before [Him]” does not imply that these gods are legitimate; God often refers to these gods, but never acknowledges their actual status as Deity. In the example of Psalm 96 verse 4, if continued on to verse 5, it directly refutes the assertion that these are actual gods:
“For great is the Lᴏʀᴅ and greatly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods.
“For all the gods of the peoples are idols, But the Lᴏʀᴅ made the heavens.”
Not only are the other gods not really gods but are merely idols, but this idea is driven home by the fact that it states that the Lᴏʀᴅ, YHWH, created the heavens. He is supreme. He created everything. Why worship a false god who has created nothing and is, instead, the creation of the minds and hands of man? Can such a creation rise up and grant the pleas of its worshipers? The obvious answer is no. If we understand that when God refers to gods of other nations that He is not acknowledging that they are truly gods but are “so-called” gods, this eliminates the problem with the vast majority of these passages used by critics of monotheism.
Not only does God condemn the practice of worshiping false gods and idols, but He has promised to utterly destroy all these false idols. In Jeremiah chapter 10, he describes the various false gods made of man’s hands and how they are in no way like the God of Israel. God juxtaposes the fact that these false gods are mute, dumb, deaf, inactive, etc., against the great and powerful God, YHWH, the only God of existence, the only one who is like the God He is:
Jeremiah 10:6-7, 10:
“Forasmuch as thereis none like unto thee, O LORD; thou art great, and thy name is great in might.
“Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee…
““But the LORD is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation.”
He then prophesies of the judgment that God will incur against these false gods of the idolaters:
“Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens.”
The profundity and implications of this passage cannot be understated. Any and all gods who did not create the universe will be completely erased from existence by God in His judgment. This completely destroys the foundation of the gods of the nations that surrounded Israel at the time, it destroys the false pagan gods of antiquity and today, and it destroys the concept that any kind of other gods exist anywhere in the universe. If they do, they will be promptly destroyed. But this forces us to ask the question: how can a god truly be a god if it can be destroyed? Thus, even if these gods do exist as LDS doctrine teaches, they are very weak gods and nothing like the God of Israel, who is infinite and eternal.
Thus, even if we were to admit that there are other gods that exist in the universe, God declares that they will be judged and destroyed. Since Latter-day Saints believe that Jesus and Michael the archangel (who later became Adam in LDS doctrine) created the universe, every other god will be destroyed. This includes God the Father/Elohim, the God who came before Elohim, Elohim’s wife aka God the Mother, and even all LDS members who hope to become gods in the future! I hope that Latter-day Saints will read this passage, pray, and ponder on its implications.
I will now continue on with the passages most often used by Latter-day Saints to try to prove the existence of many gods.
4. 1 Corinthians 8
The two passages that cause the most confusion are 1 Corinthians 8 and Psalm 82. The interpretation of 1 Corinthians 8:5 is fairly simple to ascertain; admittedly, the same is not the case with Psalm 82. As for 1 Corinthians 8, below is the entire chapter in question. I won’t be giving an in-depth exegesis of this chapter because I don’t know the original Greek and it isn’t the focus of this note, but I will point out the most relevant portions:
1 Corinthians 8:
“Now concerning things sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge makes arrogant, but love edifies. If anyone supposes that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to know; but if anyone loves God, he is known by Him.
“Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that there is no God but one. For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords, yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.”
“However not all men have this knowledge; but some, being accustomed to the idol until now, eat food as if it were sacrificed to an idol; and their conscience being weak is defiled. But food will not commend us to God; we are neither the worse if we do not eat, nor the better if we do eat. But take care that this liberty of yours does not somehow become a stumbling block to the weak. For if someone sees you, who have knowledge, dining in an idol’s temple, will not his conscience, if he is weak, be strengthened to eat things sacrificed to idols? For through your knowledge he who is weak is ruined, the brother for whose sake Christ died. And so, by sinning against the brethren and wounding their conscience when it is weak, you sin against Christ. Therefore, if food causes my brother to stumble, I will never eat meat again, so that I will not cause my brother to stumble.”
The topic of this chapter is whether it is lawful for Christians to eat food sacrificed to idols. Christians were concerned about whether eating this food would be advocating or being complicit in idol worship. Paul is teaching that merely eating the food that was sacrificed to idols is not idol worship in and of itself, yet there are many who still feel this way due to many reasons (personal biases, fear, history of idolatrous worship prior to being called by God, etc.). For this reason, we should not force someone to eat such foods against their conscience, but should be loving and forgiving (“Knowledge makes arrogant, but love edifies”, v.1).
In this passage where he denies that eating food sacrificed to idols is inherently sinful, he points out a very important point: there is no such thing as actual gods (“Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world”, v.4). He is not saying that items which people idolize do not exist; these are made abundant all throughout Scripture. He is pointing out that the gods which these idols represent (such as Baal, Asherah, etc.) are not actually gods. They are fantastical, imaginary, fictional. These gods do not exist. He supports this view by following up with, “we know…that there is no God but one” (v. 4), meaning, the possibility of any other gods is excluded. It is a non-possibility to have any other god than their God, in other words.
Having read this portion of the text, when we read, “For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords…” (v.5), we immediately understand that Paul is not now contradicting what he said in the previous verses by acknowledging that there are other or lesser gods and lords to YHWH; he is admitting that there are many which are called gods and lords but do not properly have these titles. They do not exist. They are not gods. They are fake imitations and are puny in comparison to the true God. To use this passage to try to prove the existence of many other gods is to rip this verse completely out of its immediate and global context and is poor eisegesis of the text.
5. Psalm 82
The other text in question is Psalm 82. The Psalm is included below:
A Psalm of Asaph.
“God takes His stand in His own congregation;
He judges in the midst of the rulers.
“How long will you judge unjustly
And show partiality to the wicked? Selah.
“Vindicate the weak and fatherless;
Do justice to the afflicted and destitute.
“Rescue the weak and needy;
Deliver them out of the hand of the wicked.
“They do not know nor do they understand;
They walk about in darkness;
All the foundations of the earth are shaken.
“I said, “You are gods,
And all of you are sons of the Most High.
“Nevertheless you will die like men
And fall like any one of the princes.”
“Arise, O God, judge the earth!
For it is You who possesses all the nations.”
The word translated in the NASB in verse one as “rulers” is “elohim” in the Hebrew, meaning gods. This term (elohim) or the term for “sons of God” (bene elohim) have been terms used throughout the Old Testament to refer to either men who followed the God of Israel, angelic beings in a divine council (as in Psalm 8:5), God Himself, or judges in Israel (cf Exodus 22:8-9, where “elohim” is used of the rulers in Israel). Thus, the two most outspoken interpretations of this passage are that God is chastising rulers in Israel for judging unjustly, or God is chastising actual spiritual beings in a literal council in heaven, whether fellow gods or lesser spiritual beings (angels, etc.).
Regarding judges taking the term of “elohim”, since rulers of Israel stood in position of authority and judgment over God’s people, they took a place that was ordained by God and was symbolic of God’s supreme authority. They were meant to exercise these positions of authority with righteousness, fairness, and justice. This is why the term is used of judges or rulers in this Psalm, Exodus 22, and elsewhere. Their purpose was to “Vindicate the weak and fatherless; Do justice to the afflicted and destitute. Rescue the weak and needy; Deliver them out of the hand of the wicked” (vv.3-4). However, due to the sinful nature of men, they oftentimes do not fulfill this duty in righteousness. This problem is reiterated in Psalm 58:
“Do you indeed speak righteousness, O gods?
Do you judge uprightly, O sons of men?
“No, in heart you work unrighteousness;
On earth you weigh out the violence of your hands.”
It speaks of these “gods” working on earth in “unrighteousness”. In Psalm 58 and 82, if they are speaking of other gods just like Elohim, how could they be unrighteous? How could they be on the earth doing wickedness? The only consistent way to interpret this would be to say that they are either 1) spiritual beings (angels, etc.) that have fallen to earth and commit sinful acts against men, or 2) men that have been appointed as rulers and judges who are meant to “speak righteousness” and “judge uprightly” but do not do so because of their fallen, sinful nature. We know that angels can commit sin, as evidenced with the fall of Satan and his followers (cf Jude 1:6, 2 Peter 2:4), so the first position is a possibility as well as the second. But we must approach the text even further.
Those who will advocate that the “gods” are spiritual beings, or even possibly men who are literal offspring of God (as Mormons will assert), will point to the phrase of these “gods” being “sons of the Most High” (v.6). However, we cannot simply read this phrase, close the Bible, and say it is done with. We cannot simply say, “See, it says they are ‘sons of God’, so it must mean they are literal offspring of God!” We must, instead, interpret this in light of the entire Bible.
As it has been abundantly shown, there never has, is, or will be any being close to YHWH whatsoever (cf Isaiah 43:10). If we are going to assume that God can actually produce literal offspring that can attain to the same status as He, this requires either or both 1) a mate with the same status as He, and/or 2) a separate being in the form of an offspring that will attain to the status of godhood as YHWH.
The LDS church attempts to solve the first problem by believing in a God the Mother, a completely separate being that is female by nature and with whom God the Father, who LDS call Elohim, produced trillions upon trillions of spirit babies who either inhabit bodies on this earth (or possibly other earths) or were cast down with Satan from heaven due to rebellion. Yet God says there is no other being such as He, and He doesn’t even know of any being such as He (cf Isaiah 44:6-8)! If God has a wife, why would He lie and say, “Is there any God besides Me, Or is there any other Rock? I know of none”? Can God be a liar? We know from Scripture that, no, God cannot lie (cf Titus 1:2, Hebrews 6:18), so there is no possibility of a “God the Mother” nor of any separate gods or literal offspring of God. God is God and there is none other.
So how are these beings with whom God is speaking in Psalms 58 and 82 “sons of the Most High”? Can they be literal offspring? No, this is not a possibility. Could they be simply created spiritual beings by God? This is also a possibility. But it raises a question when we examine this verse:
“Nevertheless you will die like men
And fall like any one of the princes.”
Now, each side will claim that this verse supports their position. Those who posit they are spiritual beings may say something like, “why would it say ‘you will die like men’ if it were talking to men, since all men are going to die like men? Why do you need to point out the obvious?” However, regardless of one’s position, those who will read this verse will recognize that it is saying that, to whomever God is speaking [whether angelic beings or men in positions of authority], these beings will die like men. That much is plain.
Now, can angelic beings die like men? By reading this passage in its entirety, it seems clear that God is creating a juxtaposition between the lofty titles of those He addresses as “gods” and “sons of the Most High” with the fact that they will “die like men”. Though they have positions of authority and they exercise authority, God warns them that they will die, that they aren’t truly gods like He, that they are finite, that they are capable of sin and are, thus, fallible. He is humbling them from their lofty views of themselves and calling them to repentance. They have forgotten their purpose: to serve and love the people righteously. And to remind them of their frailty, their need for the Lᴏʀᴅ God in all things, He reminds them, “you will die.” Can anything else be so succinct in bringing us to humility than to recognize our mortality? We will not live on forever exactly as we are at this moment, but our existence as we are now will end and we will be called to be judged for our actions.
Admittedly, there is little information about spiritual beings, but how could they possibly “die like men”? Do they have physical bodies as men do? In what ways would it be possible for them to “die like men”? I suppose it is possible that they could “die” in the sense of being damned and sent to hell, but it doesn’t make a distinction for those who are damned and those who aren’t; God is saying to all these “sons of the Most High” as being those who will “die like men”, meaning it is an inevitable fact for all those to whom God is speaking. Thus, it seems the most logical conclusion is that God is speaking to unjust rulers of Israel whom God is calling to repentance. The fact he still calls them “sons of the Most High” seems to indicate that they have still not lost their favored position with God entirely, but that they must return to Him in repentance.
Admittedly, I am not infallible, and I cannot claim this is the one true interpretation of this passage, but we can know for certain that it is not teaching that God has literal offspring. This would violate all the other passages of Scripture which attest that there is no being like Him at all. This cannot be stressed heavily enough.
As it has been abundantly shown, the Bible speaks of only One God that has existed from all eternity and will exist into all eternity. Correct worship of the true God requires that we have a correct concept of Who He is. He is the One God from the beginning manifest in three Divine Persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. He has given us in the Holy Bible the knowledge and understanding needed to come into communion with this God and to worship Him in a fashion that is pleasing to Him.
Any other god than the God of the Bible does not exist and cannot save you. I say to all those who believe in many gods, believe they may become a god and will be able to have spirit children in an endless cycle of god-children-god-children, etc., I call you to repent. I plead with you to repent of your false worship and believe in Jesus Christ, God made flesh, and to trust in Him and His blood alone to save you from the wrath of God for your sins. There will be no other chance after this life to repent and come to Christ (“And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment”, Hebrews 9:27). If you believe in a Christ that has not been eternally God but has been created, came into being, and/or progressed to godhood, repent. This is not the Jesus of the Bible who is the second person of the Triune God.
I praise and thank God for His showering mercy upon me, and I give all honor, praise and glory to Him. If any good comes of this article, it is by the grace of God and not by me or my efforts.